The Psychology Behind Anti-Vaxxers and Flat Earthers: A Deeper Look into Science Skepticism

Last Updated on: 30th November 2023, 03:31 am

In an era where scientific knowledge has reached new heights, it is ironic to find a resurgence in anti-science movements. Anti-vaxxers and Flat Earthers are two such groups that have captured public attention and concern. While these movements represent disparate ideologies, they share a common thread—scepticism towards established scientific truths.

This blog post will delve into the psychology behind anti-vaxxers and Flat Earthers, exploring the motivations and cognitive biases that fuel these controversial viewpoints. Understanding the reasoning—or lack thereof—behind these movements can be a stepping stone in fostering a more rational society.

The Core Beliefs


Anti-vaxxers reject the scientific consensus that vaccines are safe and effective means for preventing disease. They often defend their stance using anecdotal experiences, pseudo-science, and conspiracy theories.

white and green syringe on white surface

Photo by Iván Díaz on Unsplash

Flat Earthers

Flat Earthers deny that the Earth is an oblate spheroid, as supported by overwhelming scientific evidence. They, too, rely on a mishmash of anecdotal observations, flawed experiments, and conspiracy theories.

The Psychological Triggers

Cognitive Dissonance

People naturally seek consistency in their beliefs and perceptions. When confronted with evidence that challenges their views, they may experience cognitive dissonance, a form of psychological stress. To resolve this tension, individuals sometimes reject established facts in favour of alternative explanations that align with their pre-existing beliefs.

Confirmation Bias

This cognitive bias refers to the tendency to search for, interpret, and remember information in a way that confirms one’s preconceptions. Anti-vaxxers and Flat Earthers often fall victim to this bias, selectively picking data and anecdotes that support their views while ignoring vast swathes of evidence that contradict them.

Dunning-Kruger Effect

This psychological phenomenon explains that individuals with limited knowledge or expertise in a particular domain are prone to overestimate their abilities. This misplaced confidence can lead people to question the expertise of real specialists, as seen in the anti-vax and Flat Earth communities.

Social Factors

Community Belonging

Human beings have an innate need for social inclusion. The anti-vax and Flat Earth communities offer a sense of belonging and validation to their members. Online forums and social media platforms often serve as echo chambers where like-minded individuals can reinforce each other’s beliefs.

Fear and Distrust

Fear of the unknown or mistrust of authority figures, especially in government and science, can drive people towards these movements. When people feel anxious or sceptical about societal systems, they may seek alternative narratives that make them feel empowered or enlightened.

The Internet: A Double-Edged Sword

While the internet is a fantastic tool for education and communication, it has also given a platform to fringe movements. With algorithms designed to show users content similar to what they already consume, it becomes easy to fall deeper into the rabbit hole of misinformation.


Understanding the psychology and social factors behind the anti-vax and Flat Earth movements is crucial for addressing the misinformation epidemic. While it’s unlikely that every member will be swayed by rational arguments and evidence, compassionate dialogue and targeted education may reach those willing to reconsider their views. Ultimately, cultivating critical thinking and media literacy skills from a young age can be a preventive measure against the allure of anti-science ideologies.

Understanding the deeper mechanisms at play can better communicate the importance of scientific literacy and rational thinking in an increasingly complex world.

Sources for Further Reading:

  1. Why People Believe in Conspiracy Theories – Scientific American
  2. Why, Anti-vaxxer? – Psychology Today
  3. The Earth is flat? What planet is he on? – The Guardian
  4. What is the Function of Confirmation Bias? – Springer Link
  5. Right-Wing Populism, Social Media and Echo Chambers in Western Democracies – Shelley Boulianne, Karolina Koc-Michalska, Bruce Bimber
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